Traditional adobe structure, Niger

From World Housing Encyclopedia

1. General Information

Report: 105

Building Type: Traditional adobe structure

Country: Niger

Author(s): Tiffany Martindale

Last Updated: 2/25/2004

Last Updated: 7/11/2004

Regions Where Found: Not provided

Summary: Last Updated:

Length of time practiced: 101-200 years

Still Practiced: Yes

Building Occupancy: Single family house, Multiple housing units

Typical number of stories: Not provided

Are buildings of this type typically built on flat or sloped terrain: Flat

2. Features

Plan Shape: Not provided

Additional comments on plan shape: Not provided

Typical plan length (meters): Not provided

Typical plan width (meters): Not provided

Typical story height (meters): Not provided

Type of Structural System: Not provided

Additional comments on structural system:Not provided

Gravity load-bearing & lateral load-resisting systems: Not provided

Typical wall densities in direction 1:

Typical wall densities in direction 2:

Additional comments on typical wall densities:

Wall Openings:

Is it typical for buildings of this type to have common walls with adjacent buildings?: Yes

Modifications of buildings:

Type of Foundation:

Additional comments on foundation:

Type of Floor System:

Additional comments on floor system:

Type of Roof System:

Additional comments on roof system:

Additional comments section 2:

3. Building Process

Description of Building Materials

Structural Element Building Material (s) Comment (s)

Design Process

Who is involved with the design process?

Roles of those involved in the design process:

Expertise of those involved in the design process:

Construction Process

Who typically builds this construction type?

Roles of those involved in the building process:

Expertise of those involved in building process:

Construction process and phasing:

Construction issues:

Building Codes and Standards

Is this construction type address by codes/standards?

Applicable codes or standards:

Process for building code enforcement:

Building Permits and Development Control Rules

Are building permits required?

Is this typically informal construction?

Is this construction typically authorized as per development control rules?

Additional comments on building permits and development control rules:

Building Maintenance and Condition

Typical problems associated with this type of construction:

Who typically maintains buildings of this type?

Additional comments on maintenance and building condition:

Construction Economics

Unit construction cost:

Labor requirements:

Additional comments section 3:

4. Socio-Economic Issues

Patterns of occupancy:

Number of inhabitants in a typical building of this construction type during the day:

Number of inhabitants in a typical building of this construction type during the evening/night:

Additional comments on number of inhabitants:

Economic level of inhabitants: Very poor

Additional comments on economic level of inhabitants:

Typical Source of Financing:

Additional comments on financing:

Type of Ownership:

Additional comments on ownership:

Is earthquake insurance for this construction type typically available?:

What does earthquake insurance typically cover/cost:

Are premium discounts or higher coverages available for seismically strengthened buildings or new buildings built to incorporate seismically resistant features?:

Additional comments on premium discounts:

Additional comments section 4:

5. Earthquakes

Past Earthquakes in the country which affected buildings of this type

Year Earthquake Epicenter Richter Magnitude Maximum Intensity

Past Earthquakes

Damage patterns observed in past earthquakes for this construction type:

Additional comments on earthquake damage patterns:

Structural and Architectural Features for Seismic Resistance

Structural/Architectural Feature Statement Seismic Resistance
Lateral load path The structure contains a complete load path for seismic force effects from any horizontal direction that serves to transfer inertial forces from the building to the foundation.
Building Configuration-Vertical The building is regular with regards to the elevation. (Specify in 5.4.1)
Building Configuration-Horizontal The building is regular with regards to the plan. (Specify in 5.4.2)
Roof Construction The roof diaphragm is considered to be rigid and it is expected that the roof structure will maintain its integrity, i.e. shape and form, during an earthquake of intensity expected in this area.
Floor Construction The floor diaphragm(s) are considered to be rigid and it is expected that the floor structure(s) will maintain its integrity during an earthquake of intensity expected in this area.
Foundation Performance There is no evidence of excessive foundation movement (e.g. settlement) that would affect the integrity or performance of the structure in an earthquake.
Wall and Frame Structures-Redundancy The number of lines of walls or frames in each principal direction is greater than or equal to 2.
Wall Proportions Height-to-thickness ratio of the shear walls at each floor level is: Less than 25 (concrete walls); Less than 30 (reinforced masonry walls); Less than 13 (unreinforced masonry walls);
Foundation-Wall Connection Vertical load-bearing elements (columns, walls) are attached to the foundations; concrete columns and walls are doweled into the foundation.
Wall-Roof Connections Exterior walls are anchored for out-of-plane seismic effects at each diaphragm level with metal anchors or straps.
Wall Openings
Quality of Building Materials Quality of building materials is considered to be adequate per the requirements of national codes and standards (an estimate).
Quality of Workmanship Quality of workmanship (based on visual inspection of a few typical buildings) is considered to be good (per local construction standards).
Maintenance Buildings of this type are generally well maintained and there are no visible signs of deterioration of building elements (concrete, steel, timber).

Additional comments on structural and architectural features for seismic resistance:

Vertical irregularities typically found in this construction type:

Horizontal irregularities typically found in this construction type:

Seismic deficiency in walls:

Earthquake-resilient features in walls:

Seismic deficiency in frames:

Earthquake-resilient features in frame:

Seismic deficiency in roof and floors:

Earthquake resilient features in roof and floors:

Seismic deficiency in foundation:

Earthquake-resilient features in foundation:

Seismic Vulnerability Rating

For information about how seismic vulnerability ratings were selected see the Seismic Vulnerability Guidelines

High vulnerabilty Medium vulnerability Low vulnerability
Seismic vulnerability class

Additional comments section 5: 5.3 AC

6. Retrofit Information

Description of Seismic Strengthening Provisions

Structural Deficiency Seismic Strengthening

Additional comments on seismic strengthening provisions:

Has seismic strengthening described in the above table been performed?

Was the work done as a mitigation effort on an undamaged building or as a repair following earthquake damages?

Was the construction inspected in the same manner as new construction?

Who performed the construction: a contractor or owner/user? Was an architect or engineer involved?

What has been the performance of retrofitted buildings of this type in subsequent earthquakes?

Additional comments section 6:

7. References


Name Title Affiliation Location Email
Tiffany Martindale Structural Designer Jon Brody Consulting Engineers 1243 Pine St. #9, San Francisco, 94109 United States of America
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